Africa, the second largest continent, and a surface area of 11,668,5993 sq. mi. Africa is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, by the Red Sea to the northeast, and by the Indian Ocean to the southeast. Its highest point is Tanzania's Mt. Kilimanjaro, the world's highest free-standing mountain, which rises to 5,895 m (19,340 feet) above sea level. Africa's lowest point is Djibouti's Lake Assal, whose surface is 157 m (515 feet) below sea level. Africa has extensive mineral resources, including gold, diamonds and copper. Its longest river, the Nile, is also the World's longest, and runs 6,650 km (4,132 miles) from Burundi to Egipt. Its largest lake is the Lake Victoria - 69,485 sq km (26,828 square mile) , which is surrounded by Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya.
Africa has 54 countries - the most on any continent:
Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central Africa Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Equitorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seysheles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe.
The climate of Africa, more than that of any other continent, is generally uniform. This results from the position of the continent in the Tropical Zone, the impact of cool ocean currents, and the absence of mountain chains serving as climatic barriers. Seven main African climatic zones can be distinguished.
The central portion of the continent and the eastern coast of Madagascar have a tropical rain forest climate. Here the average annual temperature is about about 80° F), and the average annual rainfall is about about 70". The climate of the Guinea coast resembles the equatorial climate, except that rainfall is concentrated in one season; no months, however, are rainless.
To the north and south the rain forest climate is supplanted by a tropical savanna climate zone that encompasses about one-fifth of Africa. Here the climate is characterized by a wet season during the summer months and a dry season during the winter months. Total annual rainfall varies from 20" to more than more than 60". Away from the equator, to the north and south, the savanna climate zone grades into the drier steppe climate zone.